Swing GUI에서 어떻게 여백을 넣을 수 있나요?

여백 공간이 없는 GUI를 "crowded"라고 표현합니다. 컴포넌트들의 위치 혹은 크기를 설정하기 위해 재배치하지 않고 어떻게 여백을 넣을 수 있을까요?

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    다양한 LayoutManagers를 사용해서, 컴포넌트들간의 여백 공간을 만들 수 있습니다.

    1. BorderLayout:

    2. FlowLayout:

    3. GridLayout:

    4. GridBagLayout:

    GridBagConstraints.insets

    5. CardLayout:

    CardLayout(int hGap, int vGap)

    위의 클래스들의 모든 생성자를 사용해서 디스플레이하는 예

    import java.awt.*;
    import java.awt.event.*;
    import javax.swing.*;
    
    public class LayoutExample {
    
        private final int hGap = 5;
        private final int vGap = 5;
    
        private String[] borderConstraints = {
            BorderLayout.PAGE_START,
            BorderLayout.LINE_START,
            BorderLayout.CENTER,
            BorderLayout.LINE_END,
            BorderLayout.PAGE_END
        };
    
        private JButton[] buttons;
    
        private GridBagConstraints gbc;
    
        private JPanel borderPanel;
        private JPanel flowPanel;
        private JPanel gridPanel;
        private JPanel gridBagPanel;
        private JPanel cardPanel;
    
        public LayoutExample() {
            buttons = new JButton[16];
            gbc = new GridBagConstraints();
            gbc.anchor = GridBagConstraints.FIRST_LINE_START;   
            gbc.insets = new Insets(hGap, vGap, hGap, vGap);        
        }
    
        private void displayGUI() {
            JFrame frame = new JFrame("Layout Example");
            frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE);
    
            JPanel contentPane = new JPanel(
                            new GridLayout(0, 1, hGap, vGap));
            contentPane.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder(hGap, vGap, hGap, vGap));
            borderPanel = new JPanel(new BorderLayout(hGap, vGap));
            borderPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("BorderLayout"));
            borderPanel.setOpaque(true);
            borderPanel.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
            for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
                buttons[i] = new JButton(borderConstraints[i]);
                borderPanel.add(buttons[i], borderConstraints[i]);
            }
            contentPane.add(borderPanel);
    
            flowPanel = new JPanel(new FlowLayout(
                        FlowLayout.CENTER, hGap, vGap));
            flowPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("FlowLayout"));
            flowPanel.setOpaque(true);
            flowPanel.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
            for (int i = 5; i < 8; i++) {
                buttons[i] = new JButton(Integer.toString(i));
                flowPanel.add(buttons[i]);
            }
            contentPane.add(flowPanel);
    
            gridPanel = new JPanel(new GridLayout(2, 2, hGap, vGap));
            gridPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("GridLayout"));
            gridPanel.setOpaque(true);
            gridPanel.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
            for (int i = 8; i < 12; i++) {
                buttons[i] = new JButton(Integer.toString(i));
                gridPanel.add(buttons[i]);
            }
            contentPane.add(gridPanel);
    
            gridBagPanel = new JPanel(new GridBagLayout());
            gridBagPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("GridBagLayout"));
            gridBagPanel.setOpaque(true);
            gridBagPanel.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
            buttons[12] = new JButton(Integer.toString(12));
            addComp(gridBagPanel, buttons[12], 0, 0, 1, 1
                                , GridBagConstraints.BOTH, 0.33, 0.5);
            buttons[13] = new JButton(Integer.toString(13));
            addComp(gridBagPanel, buttons[13], 1, 0, 1, 1
                                , GridBagConstraints.BOTH, 0.33, 0.5);
            buttons[14] = new JButton(Integer.toString(14));
            addComp(gridBagPanel, buttons[14], 0, 1, 2, 1
                                , GridBagConstraints.BOTH, 0.66, 0.5);
            buttons[15] = new JButton(Integer.toString(15));
            addComp(gridBagPanel, buttons[15], 2, 0, 1, 2
                                , GridBagConstraints.BOTH, 0.33, 1.0);
            contentPane.add(gridBagPanel);
    
            cardPanel = new JPanel(new CardLayout(hGap, vGap));
            cardPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("CardLayout"));
            cardPanel.setOpaque(true);
            cardPanel.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
            cardPanel.add(getPanel(Color.BLUE));
            cardPanel.add(getPanel(Color.GREEN));
            contentPane.add(cardPanel);
    
            frame.setContentPane(contentPane);
            frame.pack();
            frame.setLocationByPlatform(true);
            frame.setVisible(true);
        }
    
        private JPanel getPanel(Color bColor) {
            JPanel panel = new JPanel(new FlowLayout(
                        FlowLayout.CENTER, hGap, vGap));
            panel.setOpaque(true);
            panel.setBackground(bColor.darker().darker());
            JButton swapperButton = new JButton("Next");
            swapperButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
                @Override
                public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae) {
                    CardLayout cardLayout = (CardLayout) cardPanel.getLayout();
                    cardLayout.next(cardPanel);
                }
            });
    
            panel.add(swapperButton);
    
            return panel;
        }
    
        private void addComp(JPanel panel, JComponent comp
                                    , int x, int y, int gWidth
                                        , int gHeight, int fill
                                            , double weightx, double weighty) {
            gbc.gridx = x;
            gbc.gridy = y;
            gbc.gridwidth = gWidth;
            gbc.gridheight = gHeight;
            gbc.fill = fill;
            gbc.weightx = weightx;
            gbc.weighty = weighty;      
    
            panel.add(comp, gbc);
        }
    
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            Runnable runnable = new Runnable(){
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    new LayoutExample().displayGUI();
                }
            };
            EventQueue.invokeLater(runnable);
        }
    }
    

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